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About Kalyan, India

Kalyan is a part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region and city in the Thane District of Maharashtra. Kalyan is known for providing the significant workforce for the economy of Mumbai. It is also known for being the Mumbai region’s exit station to North and South India. Kalyan is within the Administrative division (Tehsil) of the Thane District. Kalyan and its neighboring township of Dombivli jointly form the Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation, abbreviated as KDMC. It is considered a part of the Greater Mumbai built-up area, along with Bhiwandi, Thane, Ulhasnagar and the municipal councils of Ambernath and Badlapur.

History of Kalyan

During the British Era, the administration spelled Kalyan as Kallian, Callian and sometimes as callianee. Kalyan is known for being a city being constantly sieged by foreign armies like the Mughals, the Portuguese and the British. The city regards the Marathas with special significance for being the only line of defense against invading armies. Decaying structures and traces of Maratha fortification still exist in the city like the Durgadi fort. Extensive ruins in Kalyan indicate the city’s former magnificence.
“This town(callianee) sustained many sieges during the wars between the Moghuls and the Marathas and is surrounded by the ruins of various sorts. It is still a populous town and carries on some traffic in coconuts, oil, coarse cloths, brass, and earthenware. Its external appearance indicates a former state of superior opulence, but it is now a poor Maratha town.”
Besides invasions, Kalyan also found attraction among European Christian missionaries. The port of Kalyan landed them well past the coast, inside the region so many made their way to Kalyan through boats in their attempt to spread Christianity across the other side of Konkan.
Kalyan served as a port city for many centuries until siltation and the rise of Bombay eclipsed it and its sister ports – Nallasopara, Thane, Vasai, etc. Old and abandoned lighthouses which were used to guide sea traffic during the Maratha period still exist along the riverbanks of Ganesh ghat. The port was ruled by the Maurya and Gupta Empires of north India and later was part of a pretty Konkan principality vassal to the Yadava dynasty of Daulatabad, Deogiri.
After the Khilji sack of Deogiri, the Yadavas fled into the Konkan region and set up their base at Mahikawati, modern Mahim; Kalyan was a part of the brief Yadava state of Mahikawati. Mahikawati was conquered by the Muslims who set up petty coastal principalities.
As a major entrepot, Kalyan soon became, by 530-535 Common Era (CE) the seat of a Nestorian Church bishop. The Churches of south Asia which were ecclesiastically dependent on the church of Assyria and Chaldea in Mesopotamia or modern Iraq, lands then subject to the Persian empire (Sassanians), early fell with it into the Nestorian schism and used middle Persian as the liturgical language. The Konkan, Tulunad and Malabar coasts of south Asia are marked by stone crosses with Pahlavi inscriptions.
According to some interpretations, Bombay region on the Konkan coast, a region which has been known after the ancient town Kalyan, was the field of Saint Bartholomew missionary activities and his martyrdom.
During Moghul period, Kalyan was as Gulshanabad. The Moghul king Aurangzeb built fort & Iddgah port at Kalyan. He also built many mosques in & around Kalyan, one famous mosque today know as Kali masjid.
During the Middle Ages, Pope John XXII, headquartered at Avignon, sent a group of five missionaries to the Mongol Emperor at Khanbalik, modern Beijing in China, under the Dominican Fray Giordano or Jordan. On their way, they picked up a novice, Demetrius, from West Asia and then traveled through south Asia, succoring the Nestorian Christians there, who were hard pressed by the Muslims. Giordano left his colleagues at Kalyan and traveled back north to Gujarat. During his absence, the Muslim governor and Qazi of Thane summoned the missionaries and demanded submission to Islam, when they refused, they were murdered. The local Nestorians collected their remains and buried them; Giordano, on his return, took them to Sopara and buried them there. The Muslim Arab sultan of Gujarat, when informed of this development, summoned his governor of Thane and the Qazi; the Qazi fled but the governor was executed for his actions that militated against international commerce. When a later missionary, Odoric de Pordenone, visited Thane in 1324-1325, he collected their remains and moved on to China.

Kalyan Station in the year 1945.

The Martyrs of Thane were canonized by Pope Leo XIII and are Saints Thomas of Tolentino, James of Padua, Peter of Siena and Demetrius of Tiflis.

In the later Middle Ages, Kalyan was occupied by the Ahmednagar Sultanate, an indigenous dynasty founded by a man forcibly converted from a Hindu Brahmin family as a child, and then by the Bijapur Sultanate, an Indo-Turkish state in the Deccan in the 16th century, and later by the Mughal empire under the emperor Shah Jahan, who fortified the city in the mid-17th century. It came under Portuguese sway for a brief time before being re-conquered by the Muslim allies of the Mughals and was later conquered by the Marathas, who made it one of their strategic centers because it guarded the entrance to Mumbai and the western coast of India. Kashibai, wife of the Peshwa Bajirao was born in Kalyan. About eighty years after the Maratha conquest, the Maratha empire was forced to cede it to the British and Kalyan became part of the Bombay Presidency, a British India province that became Bombay state after India’s independence in 1947.

In the Middle Ages, when Kalyan was occupied by the Ahmednagar Sultanate, they gave the name as Gulshanabad and in the time of Maratha, it was changed to Kalyan. Kalyan is a port city of Shivaji Maharaj. India’s first woman doctor was from Kalyan city her name was Anandi Gopal Joshi.

Around Kalyan

Durgadi Fort, Kalyan.
Shri Shani Mandir, Dombivali -8 km
Shri Tirupati Balaji Mandir, Dombivli MIDC- 8 km
Shri Anjur Ganpati, Thane-Bhiwandi- 15 km
Shri Dutta Mandir, Shilphata, Kalyan- 15 km
Shri Kidhkaleshwar Mandir, Khidkali, Kalyan- 12 km
Shri Swami Smrtha Mandir, Khadavli, Kalyan- 20 km
Malshej Ghat – 90 km
Shri MahaGanpati, Titwala, Kalyan- 15 km

Durgadi Fort at Kalyan

The city of Kalyan was surrounded by a fort wall, the construction of which began during Shah Jahan’s reign and was completed during Aurangzeb’s reign in 1694 A.D. This city wall, which ran in excess of 2000 yards, 2123 to be precise, was guarded by 4 gates and 11 towers. The fort wall enclosed an area of 70 acres and on a high mound near the Kalyan creek, where the current Ganesh ghat stands, was a fine fort since as early as 1570. Of the four gates, the Adhar gate called after the village of Adhar about half a mile to the north, wall near the middle of the north wall; the Ganesh gate, about 400 yards distant, was near the middle of the east wall; the Ganesh gate is also called Jalela Darvaja, as it was burnt by the English in their first campaign (1780), the Panvel gate, about 700 yards distant, was near the middle of the south wall; and the Bandar or wharf gate, about 330 yards distant, was in the centre of the west wall. At the north-east corner of this area, on high ground on the river bank, was a fort nearly cut off from the city by a natural hollow, and, later, by a semicircular stone wall enclosing a space about 200 feet (61 m) long by a little less in breadth. The wall of the fort along the top of the inner bank of the ditch, and, near the north end, had a gateway known as the Delhi or Killyacha Darwaja, which was entered by a path along the top of the north side of the town wall. Inside the fort there was a low belt of ground, about the same level, as the top of the ditch, with a shallow pond not far from the Delhi gate. The remains of the pond are still visible, in the northwest corner the fort rose in a small flat-topped mound about thirty feet high. On the top of the mound, on the west crest which overhangs and is about 100 feet (30 m) above the river, is the prayer wall or idgah, sixty-four feet long, thirteen high and seven thick, which is now in a dilapidated condition. This doubtful wall is said to be the old Durga temple wall and is thickly plastered. Under the Marathas (1760–72), a new gate about 150 feet (46 m) to the south of the Ganesh gate was opened near the mansion of Ramji Mahadeo Biwalkar, the Peshwa s Governor. In the citadel of the fort Marathas built a small wooden temple of Durga Devi behind the mosque and called the fort Durgadi Killa in honor of the goddess, a name which it still bears. They also converted the mosque into Ramji’s temple. The fort measures 220 feet (67 m) in length and somewhat less in breadth. Under the English, the fort wall was dismantled and stones carried to build the Kalyan and Thane piers and a dwelling for the customs inspector in the west of the Kalyan fort. The gate to the northwest is almost the only trace of the fort wall, which is of rough stone masonry. During 1876 the original idol of the goddess Durga was stolen.

Transportation in Kalyan

Auto-rickshaws are an important mode of transpOrt in most regions. In 1999, the KDMT started its own bus service for Kalyan city and the nearby small villages. Kalyan railway station is one of the busiest railway stations in the country handling most of the rail traffic in and out of Mumbai. The major modes of transportation in Kalyan are

1) KDMT bus service,

2) Auto-rickshaws,

3) Local trains

Kalyan Railway JN The KDMT run bus services which not only ply within the Kalyan city, but it also provides routine bus service facilities to nearby townships and villages Mahone, Ambivali, Manivali. Ring Route Covers most of the areas along the periphery and touching all the major areas of Kalyan. This service starts and ends at Kalyan railway station. The ring route buses ply either via Durgadi Killa route or via Birla college route. Apart from KDMT services, the NMMT buses are available from Kalyan to Vashi every 15 minutes. Godrej Hill Welfare Association runs bus services for the residents of the area. The bus starts at Godrej Hill and ends at Ambedkar Chowk near the railway station.

Parts of Kalyan city

Kalyan city is divided into two parts: East and West due to the traditional railway system. They are connected via Patripul. Kalyan East: Kolsewadi, Saibaba Nagar, Vaishnavi Park, Lok Vasahat (Lok Gram, Lok Dhara and Lok Vatika), Netivali (Tejpal Nagri), Suchak Naka, Chakki Naka, Sastri Nagar, Tata Power locality, Nandivili, Netivali area, Chinchpada, Hanuman Nagar, Katemanivali, Anandwadi, Milind Nagar, Kailash Nagar, Vijayanagar, Tisgaon, Shivaji Colony, Siddhartha Nagar, Karpewadi, New Jimmy Baug, Deshmukh Homes, Jai Mahal Nagar, Waldhuni and Patripul area etc. Kolsewadi is the only major market street in Kalyan east. Kalyan East still lags behind its West counterpart in terms of Development. Kalyan West: comprises main station area (Nehru Chowk), Bail Bazaar, Shivaji Chowk, Shankar Rao Chowk, Ahilyabai Chowk, Tilak Chowk, Bazar Peth, Gandhi Chowk, Parnaka, Dudhnaka, Sahajanand Chowk, Agra Road, Lal Chowki, Adharwadi, Durgadi Killa Area, Murbad Road, Syndicate, Ramdas Wadi, Pournima Talkies, Karnik Road, Kala Talao, Chikanghar, Rambaug Lane [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], Joshi Aug, Birla College Road, Yogi Dham, Beturkar Pada, Mhasoba Maidan, Govind Wadi, Ghas Bazaar, Machli Bazar, Daire chowk, Reti Bunder, and Godrej Hill. Basically old Kalyan consists of Kalyan station area, Shivaji Chowk, Shankarrao Chowk, Ahilyabai Chowk, Bazaar Peth, Gandhi chowk, Tilak Chowk, Govindwadi, Parnaka & Dudhnaka, Agra road, Lal chowk to Durgadi Fort. New Kalyan is a newly developed area of Kalyan. New Kalyan comprises the Khadakpada vicinities and the upmarket Godrej Hills.

Civic amenities at Kalyan

Durgadi Fort at Kalyan

Kalyan is a part of Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation established in 1983 with municipalities of Kalyan, Dombivli, Ambarnath and 81 villages. It was then one of the largest urban local body in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) and in the state with the area around 209 sq km. The government of Maharashtra has taken the decision to delete major area of the corporation limits on different occasion. Presently the total area of the corporation has remained to the tune of 67 sqkm

1. Electric supply: The township receives its electric supply from the Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB).

2. Roads: The inner arterial roads and the main routes through the city have been developed by the MSRDC. Perpetual road-digging and subsequent mediocre patchwork during the implementation of the JNNURM project to ensure better sewage in the conurbation had previously left the roads in a sorrowful state. The government has completed the reconstruction of major roads thus affected. Generally, the roads are built only to be dug up soon after under the pretext of pipelines or wiring. Thus, the roads are broken and dusty throughout the year. The arterial Kalyan-Bhiwandi road via Birla College has been in this broken, dusty state for around 2 years now. Perhaps the worst form of roads can be seen around the Govindwadi constituency.

3. Water supply The city has good water sources in and around it, which includes the Ulhas river in its vicinity, lakes in the central areas, and high storage tanks. the city eco-friendly wastewater treatment plant and a water cleaning plant near Gandhara village. Some areas, though, have restricted water supply timings, causing inconveniences among locals.

4. City transport service: is provided by the Kalyan Dombivali Municipal Transport run buses (KDMT) which run city buses along the major routes in the city and surrounding townships and villages. However, auto-rickshaws remains a major source of transport in the city. In the recent past, the number of auto-rickshaws in the city has seen a dramatic rise, albeit a highly disorganized one owing to poor road conditions, no use of electronic meters and high fares. The KDMT buses lead to major traffic jams during the peak hours some halts. The frequency of the ring route buses has been increased to solve the road transportation woes of the city dwellers.

5. Public parks & playgrounds: There are three large parks in Kalyan area i.e. Rani Laxmibai Park (Near Commissioner Bungalow), Nana- Nani Park at Near Gurudev Hotel & Park Near Lord Shivas Paradise in Chikanghar. Other small parks have been developed near big localities to cater the demands of citizens for a more environment-friendly sustenance. There are 3 major playgrounds i.e. Yashwant Rao Chavan sports complex(Maxi ground), Subhash Maidan & Birla College Ground. All of these parks and gardens are only for namesake.

6. Capacity to handle natural calamities: Kalyan, being situated on the banks of Ulhas River, along with proximity to Gandhari and Waldhuni river, has been prone to flooding during monsoons. The deluge of 26 July 2005, saw Kalyan being badly affected as it was totally cut-off from the neighborhood for 3 days. However, the devastation in Kalyan & surrounding areas was highly under-reported vis-a-vis areas in Mumbai like Kalina, Kurla etc. The government, on proposals of the disaster management and control systems, have completed laying off more waste pipelines throughout the city to reduce the possibility of major water-related calamities, but the conditions remain unsafe in coastal areas like Retibunder on account of poor governance and illegal activities like mining.

7. Real-estate development: There is rapid real estate development in the township. Recent development projects and more development proposals by the government has led to the tremendous demand for housing. The city has experienced a boom in its real estate pricing. Infrastructure development is changing the face of the township like never before. Godrej Hill is proof of that.

8. Medical facilities: Kalyan has high-class medical facilities. There are well-known hospitals like Fortis Hospital, Shree Devi hospital, Phadke Hospital, Meera Hospital, Shree Hospital, Apex Hospital in Kalyan. In addition to these, there is also a very good Railway hospital available for the railway employees at Kalyan. Plus, there is a municipal hospital, the Rukminibai Hospital near Kalyan station. However, the cost of advanced medical facilities is very high in Kalyan. The city has shown a very high health index compared to most other suburbs, thanks to good healthcare facilities from the private and government sectors.

9. Education: Education in the city is considered the best among most outer Mumbai suburbs. A large number of schools and colleges, active participation of parents and teachers in social activities and strong political background have contributed to an even better education system.

10. Garbage Removal: The city needs to spruce up its roads by efficient garbage removal systems. Stink, stench and heaps of garbage adorn the roads in most areas.